Domains starting at a top level (i.e., near the root) are particularly
important for DNS operation.
These domains are generally called Top Level Domains (TLDs),
and TLDs are often referred to by specific names.
The entire name space is called the root
domain, and some common first-level domains are called generic top level domains or gTLDs.
Examples of gTLDs are the com, net, and org domains. At the first level, there are also percountry
domain names, which are called country code top level domains (or ccTLDs).
There isno technical difference between gTLDs and ccTLDs in terms of the DNS protocol; the difference
is in who manages the corresponding name space.
An arbitrary connected subset of the name space can be a notion called a zone. Every node
in the name space belongs to one and only one of the zones, which allows a zone to define
an administration boundary of a particular part of the name space.
Note that a zone is not
necessarily a sub-tree, and does not necessarily equal the domain of the same name. In fact,
the corresponding zones for most top-level domains are not equal to the domains; in particular,
the root zone effectively consists of the root node only.
Each zone is served by one or more nameservers.
IP Country Location - IP Ranges
The TCP/IP routing system is designed around the concept
of a network ID, which is dependent on the address class (A, B, or C) of the IP address.
The address class system has some limitations and is sometimes an inefficient method
for assigning blocks of addresses to a single provider.
Classless Internet Domain Routing (CIDR) offers an alternative method for assigning
addresses and determining routes. The CIDR system specifies a host
through an address/mask pair, such as 220.127.116.11/19.
The mask number represents the number of address bits associated with the network ID.
The CIDR system offers more efficient routing if the routing protocols support it.
CIDR reduces the necessary information that must pass between routers because
it lets the routers treat multiple class networks as a single entity.
Recent protocols, such as OSPF and BGP4, support classless addressing, but older protocols,
such as RIP, do not support CIDR.
IP Address Ranges
Many webmasters have the necessity to block IP addresses for certain countries and
we have seen a many request to integrate such a IP country tool that will list not
only IP range for certain country assorted by IP blocks but also give visitor option
to choose the format of IP range output.
You can choose with our IP ranges tool of you would simple to list all IP range or you would like to have
CIDR (Classless Internet Domain Routing) output.
For easy integrating into your .htaccess file we have added option where
you can chose prefix Deny or Allow in combination with CIDR Range(Classless Internet Domain Routing) or IP Ranges to block country
from accessing your website or to allow only specific country to access your site.
For example if you would like to block
traffic from Andorra then simple select Prefix Deny with CIDR (Classless Internet Domain Routing) output for Andorra you will get:
<Limit GET HEAD POST>
deny from 18.104.22.168/19
deny from 22.214.171.124/19
deny from 126.96.36.199/32
deny from 188.8.131.52/19
deny from 184.108.40.206/32
deny from 220.127.116.11/32
allow from all
If IP country ranges list is higher than 10KB pop-up will prompt to download complete IP ranges
in gzip format.
We keep our IP address database up to date. Last IP ranges database updated ==> October 05, 2016