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Name Resolution Problems

A name resolution problem occurs when a hostname to which a message is addressed cannot be resolved on the network.



A name resolution problem is (arguably) not a connectivity problem, because it doesn't necessarily mean that the source computer cannot connect with the target.

In fact, the most common symptom of a name resolution problem is that the source computer can reach the target by IP address but can't reach the target hostname.

Even though a name resolution problem isn't a connectivity problem in the strictest sense, as a practical matter, resources on today's networks are referenced by hostname or NetBIOS name, and your first attempt to connect to a host will probably be by name.

First try with Ping and if you can still connect by IP address, you probably have a problem with name resolution.


TCP/IP Features

Most import TCP/IP features are:

1. Logical addressing
2. Routing
3. Name service
4. Error control and flow control
5. Application support

These features are at the heart of TCP/IP!




IP Questions

Question: What is TCP/IP?

TCP/IP are two separate protocols, independent of each other.
TCP is Transmission Control Protocol, defines the protocol for one host (host application) to talk to another. Layer four of the OSI/ISO model. TCP is connection orientedand treats data as a stream.



Ip is Internet Protocol, defines the protocol that gateways use to identify networks, and paths to networks and hosts. Handles the routing of data between networks. IP is a connectionless protocol and treats all data as datagrams.
TCP/IP has been in use for more than 20 years, and time has proven it to be a tested and stable protocol suite.

Question: What is Network?

A network is a collection of computers or computer-like devices that can communicate across a common transmission medium


Question: What is Network Protocols?

A network protocol is a system of common rules that helps define the complex process of transferring data. The data travels from an application on one computer, through the computer's network hardware, across the transmission medium to the correct destination, and up through the destination computer's network hardware to a receiving application


Question: What is Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)?

The computers on a local network use an Internet layer protocol called Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) to map IP addresses to physical addresses. A host must know the physical address of the destination network adapter in order to send any data to it. For this reason, ARP is a very important protocol.


Question: What is RARP?

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RARP stands for Reverse ARP. RARP is the opposite of ARP. ARP is used when the IP address is known but the physical address is not known. RARP is used when the physical address is known but the IP address is not known. RARP is often used in conjunction with the BOOTP protocol to boot diskless workstations.


Question: What is BOOTP?

Many network adapters contain an empty socket for insertion of an integrated circuit known as a boot PROM. The boot PROM firmware starts as soon as the computer is powered on. It loads an operating system into the computer by reading it from a network server instead of a local disk drive. The operating system downloaded to the BOOTP device is pre-configured for a specific IP address.


Question: What is Routing?

Routing is the process by which a packet is directed through the internet between its source and destination.


Question: What are Packets?

Routing is the process by which a packet is directed through the internet between its source and destination.


Question: What is TELNET?

Telnet, short for TELecommunications NETwork, refers to both the application and the protocol itself, granting the name a dual role. Telnet provides users a way to log in and directly access their terminal across a network. This means actual, direct access to the remotely located computer. Telnet is provided on port 23.


Question: What is SMTP?

SMTP, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, is the de facto standard for transferring email over networks, primarily the Internet. All operating systems have email clients that can use SMTP and most, if not all, Internet service providers use SMTP as their outgoing mail service. There are also SMTP servers for all operating systems including, but not limited to, Windows 9x/NT/2K/XP/Vista, MacOS, Unix and variants, Linux, BeOS, and even AmigaOS.


Question: What is IPv4?

In IP protocol version 4, an IP address has 4 bytes. An IP address uniquely addresses a network interface. Such a unique address is called a unicast IP address. If a system uses several network cards (several network interfaces) and all of them use IP protocol, then every network interface has its own IP address. It is similar to the address of a house; every house has only one address.


Question: What is Network Mask?

Network masks are used to help define the network address, which is part of the IP address, namely to specify which bits of the IP address represent the network address. A network mask is a four-byte number. The bits specifying the network address are ones while all the rest are zeros. How the network mask works can be illustrated with an the example using binary notation.


 

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